One drawback to Brennan’s study is that, unlike Kouri’s, there was evidence of attempted deception. Several people had to be excluded from the non-users’ group because they were either definitely on steroids (they failed the urine test), or probably on steroids (in the researchers’ words, they had “implausibly high muscularity and low body fat despite denial of AAS use”). However, even if a couple of users slipped in, they probably didn’t skew the data too much. The sample size for nonusers was big enough (131 people) that a few bad apples wouldn’t spoil the whole bunch, and the researchers were excluding suspiciously jacked people anyways, so if a few users did slip in, they apparently weren’t swole enough to raise any red flags.
Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes. 
After the Kefauver Harris Amendment was passed in 1962, the . FDA began the DESI review process to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs approved under the more lenient pre-1962 standards, including Dianabol.  In 1965, the FDA pressured CIBA to further document its legitimate medical uses, and re-approved the drug for treating post-menopausal osteoporosis and pituitary-deficient dwarfism .  After CIBA's patent exclusivity period lapsed, other manufacturers began to market generic metandienone in the .