A double- blind RCT comparing daily standard-dose oral prednisolone with monthly high-dose oral dexamethasone in 40 participants reported none of the prespecified outcomes for this review . The trial had a low risk of bias , but the quality of evidence was limited as it came from a single small study . There was little or no difference in number of participants who achieved remission ( RR ; 95% CI to in favour of monthly dexamethasone; moderate-quality evidence), or change in disability or impairment after one year (low-quality evidence). Change of grip strength or Medical Research Council (MRC) scores demonstrated little or no difference between groups (moderate-quality to low-quality evidence). Eight of 16 people in the prednisolone group and seven of 24 people in the dexamethasone group deteriorated. Side effects were similar with each regimen , except that sleeplessness was less common with monthly dexamethasone (low-quality evidence) as was moon facies (moon-shaped appearance of the face) (moderate-quality evidence).
There have been no randomized trials examining the effect of hydrocortisone given after the first week of life or used to treat infants with prolonged ventilator dependence. One retrospective cohort study compared infants who required assisted ventilation and oxygen after the first one to two weeks of age and received hydrocortisone with a group of healthier infants who did not receive hydrocortisone.  Infants treated with hydrocortisone experienced decreasing oxygen requirements and were successfully weaned from assisted ventilation. After seven days of treatment, there were no differences in oxygen requirements between the two groups. On follow-up, there were no differences in head circumference, neurological outcome, psychomotor development or school performance. Magnetic resonance imaging performed at eight years of age on a similar cohort of infants treated with hydrocortisone showed that although, overall, children born preterm had significantly reduced grey matter volumes compared to term children, there were no differences in the intracranial volumes, grey matter volumes or white matter volumes between children who did and did not receive hydrocortisone for treatment of CLD.  There were also no differences in neurocognitive outcomes, assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children.
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