In the early 20th century, Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition. In 1906, Edith G. Willcock and Frederick Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan aids the well-being of mice but it did not assure their growth.  In the middle of twelve years of attempts to isolate them,  Hopkins said in a 1906 lecture that "unsuspected dietetic factors," other than calories, protein, and minerals , are needed to prevent deficiency diseases.  In 1907, Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart started the cow feeding, single-grain experiment , which took nearly four years to complete.
1. The department shall provide coverage, subject to state and federal appropriations, for the full cost of amino acid-based elemental formulas, meaning formulas made from single nonallergenic amino acids, for children under nineteen years of age with a medical diagnosis of immunoglobulin E and nonimmunoglobulin E mediated allergies to multiple food proteins, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, eosinophilic disorders, and impaired absorption of nutrients caused by disorders affecting the absorptive surface, functional length, and motility of the gastrointestinal tract.
Alpha Nutrition specializes in elemental nutrient formulas, the pure expression of nutrient biochemistry. We provide a choice of nutrient modules so that food can be replaced, nutrient intake can be supplemented and balanced in a variety of ways. These precise nutrient sets are formulated by assembling nutrients into modules that supply energy, electrolytes, antioxidants, phosphate, vitamins, minerals, neurotransmitter substrates and amino acids as the protein building blocks. The formulas are all packaged as dry powders to be mixed in a blender and taken orally. Each formula is described in detail in a PDF file which you can download and keep as a reference.