Measurements of levels of 17α-OHP are useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia as the typical enzymes that are defective, namely 21-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxylase , lead to a build-up of 17α-OHP. In contrast, the rare patient with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency will have very low or undetectable levels of 17α-OHP. 17α-OHP levels can also be used to measure contribution of progestational activity of the corpus luteum during pregnancy as progesterone but not 17α-OHP is also contributed by the placenta .
The MEP pathway starts with the condensation of pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP or DOXP). The key isomers DMAPP and IPP are subsequently formed via a series of enzymatic steps starting with the conversion of DXP to 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP). Enzymes of this MEP pathway are attractive targets for the development of drugs targeting infectious diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis, because this pathway occurs in pathogenic prokaryotes but is absent in human metabolic pathways.