Biogenic amines are naturally present in grapes or can occur during the vinification and aging processes, essentially due to the microorganism’s activity. When present in wines in high amount, biogenic amines may cause not only organoleptic defects but also adverse effects in sensitive human individuals, namely due to the toxicity of histamine, tyramine and putrescine. Even though there are no legal limits for the concentration of biogenic amines in wines, some European countries only recommend maximum limits for histamine. In this sense, biogenic amines in wines have been widely studied. The determination of amines in wines is commonly achieved by liquid chromatography, using derivatization reagents in order to promote its eparation and detection. In alternative, other promising methodologies have been developed using capillary electrophoresis or biosensors, revealing lower costs and faster results, without needing a derivatization step. It is still a challenge to develop faster and inexpensive techniques or methodologies to apply in the wine industry. 
If there’s a problem in the pituitary gland, that’s called Secondary adrenal insufficiency and occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), the hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. If ACTH output is too low, cortisol production drops. Eventually, the adrenal glands can shrink due to lack of ACTH stimulation. Secondary adrenal insufficiency is much more common than Addison’s disease. The most common cause is a tumor in the pituitary which causes an increase in ACTH which increases the cortisol level. They remove the tumor on the pituitary gland by accessing the pituitary gland through the nose.